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Aniakchak Peak description and information

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LOCATION
FACTS
Official Name: Aniakchak Peak
Type:Stratovolcano with summit caldera, intracaldera domes, cones, and vents
Most Recent Activity:August 2010
Seismically Monitored: Yes
Color Code:GREEN
Alert Level:NORMAL
Elevation: 4400 ft (1341 m)
Latitude: 56.9058° N
Longitude:158.209° W
Quadrangle:Chignik
CAVW Number:312090
Pronunciation: Sound file
Associated Features:Vent Mtn
Surprise Lake
Blocky cone
Bolshoi Dome
Half Cone
New cone
Pumice Dome
Vulcan Dome
West Dome
1931 Crater
Nearby towns:Port Heiden 16 mi (26 km) NW
Chignik Lagoon 43 mi (69 km) SW
Chignik 43 mi (69 km) SW
Chignik Lake 50 mi (80 km) SW
Anchorage 419 mi (674 km) NE
DESCRIPTION
From Miller and others (1998) [1]: "Aniakchak Crater is an ice-free, circular caldera about 10 km in diameter and a maximum of 1 km deep which was first described by Smith (1925) [2]. The pre-caldera cone was built upon a basement of Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, which are exposed high on the east and south walls of the caldera [3]. The elevation of the caldera rim varies from 1,341 m to 610 m. Surprise Lake, a 3.2-km-long lake in the northeast part of the caldera at an elevation of about 335 m is the source of the Aniakchak River, which flows through a breach in the eastern wall of the caldera. Numerous domes, flows, and cones occupy the interior of the caldera [4]; the largest cone is Vent Mountain, 2.5 km in diameter and rising 430 m above the floor of the caldera. The pre-caldera cone was built on the west side of a basement high. The cone was deeply dissected by numerous glaciers that cut U-shaped valleys into the slopes before the caldera-forming eruption.

"Ash flows from the caldera-forming eruption - 3430 +/- 10 yrs B.P. [5] - reached both the Bering Sea and the Pacific Ocean [6]. They are typically non-welded and fill glacial valleys to a depth of at least 75 m adjacent to the caldera rim. The ash flows were highly mobile, over-running 260-meter-high passes in the Aleutian Range and traveling as far as 50 km from the caldera rim [6]."

REFERENCES CITED
[1]
Catalog of the historically active volcanoes of Alaska, 1998
citation imageMiller, T. P., McGimsey, R. G., Richter, D. H., Riehle, J. R., Nye, C. J., Yount, M. E., and Dumoulin, J. A., 1998, Catalog of the historically active volcanoes of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report OF 98-0582, 104 p.
Download PDF title page PDF : 52
Download PDF intro and TOC PDF : 268 KB
Download PDF eastern part - Wrangell to Ukinrek Maars PDF : 972 KB
Download PDF central part - Chiginagak to Cleveland PDF : 2,463 KB
Download PDF western part - Carlisle to Kiska PDF : 956 KB
Download PDF references PDF : 43 KB

[2]
Aniakchak crater, Alaska Peninsula, 1925
citation imageSmith, W. R., 1925, Aniakchak crater, Alaska Peninsula: in Mendenhall, W. C., (ed.), Shorter contributions to general geology, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper PP 0132-J, p. 139-149, 4 plates, scale unknown.
Download PDF full-text PDF : 1.2 MB

[3]
Geologic map of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska, 1981
Detterman, R. L., Miller, T. P., Yount, M. E., and Wilson, F. H., 1981, Geologic map of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I 1229, unpaged, 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000.

[4]
Postglacial eruptive history, geochemistry, and recent seismicity of Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska, 2014
Bacon, C.R., Neal, C.A., Miller, T.P., McGimsey, R.G., and Nye, C.J., 2014, Postglacial eruptive history, geochemistry, and recent seismicity of Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1810, 74 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/pp1810, available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1810/
http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/pp1810
Download link to PDFs and tables on USGS website

[5]
Late Quaternary caldera-forming eruptions in the eastern Aleutian arc, Alaska, 1987
citation imageMiller, T. P., and Smith, R. L., 1987, Late Quaternary caldera-forming eruptions in the eastern Aleutian arc, Alaska: Geology, v. 15, n. 5, p. 434-438.
Download PDF full-text PDF : 2.5 MB

[6]
Spectacular mobility of ash flows around Aniakchak and Fisher calderas, Alaska, 1977
citation imageMiller, T. P., and Smith, R. L., 1977, Spectacular mobility of ash flows around Aniakchak and Fisher calderas, Alaska: Geology, v. 5, n. 3, p. 173-176.
Download PDF full-text PDF : 1.92 MB

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