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Klawasi Group description and information

KLAWASI GROUP LINKS

SAMPLES
LOCATION
FACTS
Type:Group of mud volcanoes
Most Recent Activity:July 31, 1998
Seismically Monitored: No
Elevation: 2625 ft (800 m)
Latitude: 62.0962° N
Longitude:145.0853° W
Quadrangle:Gulkana
CAVW Number:
Pronunciation: Sound file
Associated Features:Shrub
Upper Klawasi
Lower Klawasi
Nearby towns:Silver Springs 10 mi (16 km) SW
Copperville 11 mi (17 km) SW
Copper Center 12 mi (19 km) SW
Tazlina 12 mi (19 km) SW
Anchorage 169 mi (272 km) SW
DESCRIPTION
The Klawasi Group is composed of "three large mud volcanoes located approximately 27 km (17 mi) east of Glennallen near the west slope of the the Pleistocene volcano, Mt. Drum, in the Copper River Basin of southcentral Alaska. The area is within Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve" [1]. The three mud volcanoes are named Upper Klawasi, Lower Klawasi, and Shrub. "Shrub rises 340 ft (~100 m) above surrounding terrain and is composed of deposits derived from underlying glaciolacustrine sediments of the Basin [2]. Low-level mud and minor gas emission has historically been almost constant at the other two mud volcanoes; Shrub [was] virtually inactive for decades with only some minor discharge observed in the mid-1950s [3]. During the spring of 1997, Shrub began to vigorously erupt CO2-rich gas and warm saline mud" [1].

Motyka and others (1989) [4] show how helium and carbon isotope ratios provide good evidence that the Klawasi CO2 is derived from a magmatic intrusive with additional contributions of CO2 from contact metamorphism of deep-seated limestone beds.

REFERENCES CITED
[1]
1997 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, 1999
citation imageMcGimsey, R. G., and Wallace, K. L., 1999, 1997 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report OF 99-0448, 42 p.
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[2]
Report on the 1997 activity of Shrub mud volcano, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, south-central Alaska, 1998
Richter, D. H., Symonds, R. B., Rosenkrans, D. S., McGimsey, R. G., Evans, W. C., and Poreda, R. J., 1998, Report on the 1997 activity of Shrub mud volcano, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, south-central Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report OF 98-128, 13 p.

[3]
Mud volcanoes in the Copper River Basin, Alaska, 1961
Nichols, D. R., and Yehle, L. A., 1961, Mud volcanoes in the Copper River Basin, Alaska: in Raasch, G. O., (ed.), Geology of the Arctic, First International Symposium on Arctic Geology, Proceedings, v. 2, Calgary, Alberta, January 11-13, 1960, Toronto, Ontario, University of Toronto Press, p. 1063-1087.

[4]
Geochemistry, isotopic composition, and origin of fluids emanating from mud volcanoes in the Copper River basin, Alaska, 1989
citation imageMotyka, R. J., Poreda, R. J., and Jeffrey, A. W. A., 1989, Geochemistry, isotopic composition, and origin of fluids emanating from mud volcanoes in the Copper River basin, Alaska: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 53, n. 1, p. 29-41.

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